Friday, October 11, 2013

WATCH OUT!!! GLOBAL DELIVERANCE TEAM (GLODET) CENTER FOR MISSIONS AND SPIRITUAL RENEWAL re-enters Oyo and it’s environ in grand style. GLODET is a non-denominational Para-church based ministry committed to the tri-faceted vision of Deliverance, Revival and Redemption of God’s people. This ministry is a major force for missions and spiritual reawakening of the body of Christ and has its beginning in Oyo about 19 years ago. GLODET is powerfully coming back to Oyo with a prophetic mandate to reawake, and re-engineer the body of Christ in Oyo and its environ for missions and spiritual warfare. This mission will present various opportunities for God’s people among which shall include: 1. WEEKLY RHEMA HOUR – A one hour 30 minutes time with the Lord in sodality and exploration of God’s undiluted word aimed at sharpening the insight of God’s people – a platform to create basic understanding of the scripture that can ensure right standing for overall spiritual formation. 2. 60 hour training program on spiritual warfare that will be strategically organized at various locations to prepare God’s people for power evangelism and right Christian daily living. 3. MONTHLY PROPHETIC NIGHT – All night prayer and prophetic campaign, an opportunity to encounter God’s power in a transformational way. 4. OPERATION PHILIP MISSION CAMPAIGN – Mission outreach targeting “frontier evangelism” to unreached or less reached places that are ripe for harvest. 5. Strategic prophetic and spiritual direction for those with specific spiritual needs. 6. Special workshops to explore, discover, develop and deploy individual’s spiritual gifts. *An office and meeting location will soon be opened at a very strategic spot within Oyo. Work will equally commence on the permanent site of the ministry where those seeking for spiritual formation and direction can have personal or group retreat and those in need of deliverance can be adequately attended to. Through our various weekly spiritual formation programs we shall develop and deploy mission minded brethren for power evangelism which is indeed the very heartbeat of God. *To be a part of this great move of God you can further explore our blog on the internet for further information (www.delekolade.blogspot.com/www.glodetmission.blogspot.com) or call any of the following telephone numbers – 08032075079, 08166710202, 08139356691, and 08059426557. Those who want to financially support this work are equally welcome and encouraged.
TOPIC: DOUBLE CROSSING ANOINTING TEXT: MARK 5:25-34 As we celebrate the mighty grace that God has released upon this month, and the prophetic declaration to cross over and take over, we cannot but align ourselves with outstanding anointing that will automate the release of this grace. In the passage of the scripture for our consideration today is the pathetic story of a frustrated sick woman in desperate search for solution. This unnamed woman remains a great example and testimony of faith that can waylay, double cross and provoke the release of mercy at all cost. She believed that God’s grace is more than enough for everyone to tap into. Jesus was following someone (Jarius) home but the release of a stronger fast track faith connected instantly and got result. Major hints about this woman include the fact that: 1. Her condition has become her identity (vs 25). 2. Had an unresolved issue (vs 25). 3. Her condition defied all human solutions (vs 26). 4. Her situation “siphoned” all her resources (vs 26). 5. The information she heard was her prelude to the transformation she experienced (vs 27). 6. She was different from the rest of the crowd in that vs 27-33: • She had a great expectation and decision. • Walked against the “press” (crowd and obstruction). • Did what others did not do. • Identified by Christ in the midst of the crowd.
WATCH OUT!!! GLOBAL DELIVERANCE TEAM (GLODET) CENTER FOR MISSIONS AND SPIRITUAL RENEWAL re-enters Oyo and it’s environ in grand style. GLODET is a non-denominational Para-church based ministry committed to the tri-faceted vision of Deliverance, Revival and Redemption of God’s people. This ministry is a major force for missions and spiritual reawakening of the body of Christ and has its beginning in Oyo about 19 years ago. GLODET is powerfully coming back to Oyo with a prophetic mandate to reawake, and re-engineer the body of Christ in Oyo and its environ for missions and spiritual warfare. This mission will present various opportunities for God’s people among which shall include: 1. WEEKLY RHEMA HOUR – A one hour 30 minutes time with the Lord in sodality and exploration of God’s undiluted word aimed at sharpening the insight of God’s people – a platform to create basic understanding of the scripture that can ensure right standing for overall spiritual formation. 2. 60 hour training program on spiritual warfare that will be strategically organized at various locations to prepare God’s people for power evangelism and right Christian daily living. 3. MONTHLY PROPHETIC NIGHT – All night prayer and prophetic campaign, an opportunity to encounter God’s power in a transformational way. 4. OPERATION PHILIP MISSION CAMPAIGN – Mission outreach targeting “frontier evangelism” to unreached or less reached places that are ripe for harvest. 5. Strategic prophetic and spiritual direction for those with specific spiritual needs. 6. Special workshops to explore, discover, develop and deploy individual’s spiritual gifts. *An office and meeting location will soon be opened at a very strategic spot within Oyo. Work will equally commence on the permanent site of the ministry where those seeking for spiritual formation and direction can have personal or group retreat and those in need of deliverance can be adequately attended to. Through our various weekly spiritual formation programs we shall develop and deploy mission minded brethren for power evangelism which is indeed the very heartbeat of God. *To be a part of this great move of God you can further explore our blog on the internet for further information (www.delekolade.blogspot.com/www.glodetmission.blogspot.com) or call any of the following telephone numbers – 08032075079, 08166710202, 08139356691, and 08059426557. Those who want to financially support this work are equally welcome and encouraged.
PROPHETIC DESTINY OF NIGERIA September 5, 2013 at 12:10am THE PROPHETIC DESTINY OF NIGERIA(By Rev Dele Kolade Abraham's Tabernacle Sagamu Ogun State Nigeria) Every nation exists for a divine purpose, so is Nigeria in comity of nations. Our nation, Nigeria, has a prophetic and political significant beginning and she occupies a special place in God’s global redemptive agenda. From her formation, God has been at work and control. Even though many may consider the formation of Nigeria as a very strategic colonial manipulation or agenda but in the midst of all these, the hand of God is clearly seen. The process of the formation of this great nation which began in the amalgamation of the 3 protectorates in 1914 only fulfilled the overall agenda of God for mission and prophetic exploit. As a nation, even before time, we pre-existed in the mind of God. It is therefore a prophetic arrangement that the three protectorates will be amalgamated, forming the largest pool of black Africans worldwide. In the record of the table of Nations in Genesis Chapter ten, a panoramic, chronological prophetic agenda was strategically set out that will determine the various prophetic dispensations which will in turn determine the global redemptive destinies in the table of Nations and the ensuing historical development, a symmetrical panoramic, prophetic developments and generational manifestation was set out. This development began with Africa and as the dawn of the end-time sets, in God’s missiological campaign, Africa is coming back to the limelight as the new pace setter. Nigeria is the most populated Black Country in the world, as well as the most populated country in Africa (about 160 million). Africa is very prominent in the biblical history and prophetic record from the table and origin of Nations captured in Genesis Chapter ten. Ham, one of the sons of Noah is believed to be the father of the other branches of gentiles, including Egyptians, Abyssinians, and kindred groups (The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database,©1962 by Moody Press). Mizraim, one of the sons of Ham as indicated in Gen. 10:6 is also regarded as Egypt. Sometime also, Cush, the first son of Ham is interchangeably used for Ethiopia like the case of Dan. 11:43. In this translation, the word translated as “Ethiopian” is the plural of the word “kuwshiy” which according to Biblesoft’s New Exhaustive Strong’s Number and Concordance with Expanded Greek-Hebrew Dictionary means descendants of Cush or in other words, people of dark skin colour and it is commonly translated as Cush or Cushite in many Old Testament passages. It does not necessarily mean peoples in the modern nation of Ethiopia. In Biblical history and redemptive prophecies, Africa has featured significantly. The first crowned king after the flood was of African descent, Nimrod, the first son of Cush. Egypt significantly featured in the Old Testament history as a wealthy place (Ex. 12:34-35). It was also at Egypt that God incubated and prepared the nation of Israel. In Num. 12:1, Moses’ wife (Zipporah) was identified as an Ethiopian. Asenath, the wife of Joseph who bore him Manasseh and Ephraim, is proudly and Egyptian woman. Ebed-Melech, the man who saved Prophet Jeremiah was a Cushite, an African (Jer. 38:7-13). When Herod was looking for the Baby Jesus to kill, the Angel of the Lord directed Joseph to go to Africa (Egypt) for the safety of Messiah and his family. Egypt was a safe haven for Jesus. Of a very significant importance to end-time global missiology was the place of Simon the Cyrenian, the North-African man who carried the cross of Jesus to Golgotha. This singular, last hour assignment of Simon the Cyrenian prophetically represent what role and place is reserved for Africa this end-time as far as global missiological campaign is concerned. The children of Ham and for that matter, the descendants of Cush at this end-time will be at the forefront of the global mission campaign. Infact, Africans will have to take the gospel back to Europe. This is the high point of mission agenda that will be led by Africans. Considering Nigeria as the only nation with the largest concentration of blacks in the world, Nigeria is at the center of God’s prophetic agenda for the global redemptive move. In biblical chronoprophecy, as Simon the Cyrenian carried the cross to Golgotha, so will the sons of Ham, and for that matter the Cushite be at the forefront of global mission campaign. Nigeria, being the nation with the largest number of blacks will lead in this campaign. This singular account of the cross bearing by Simon the Cyrenian brings a great illumination to the way the history of the church is read, and the missiological adventures that follows the resurrection story. Simon the Cyrenian mentioned in this passage is an African. Cyrene is located around Libya. At the time of Christ, the inhabitants of the present Libya, Ethiopia and Egypt were predominantly black Africans, the descendants of Cush, one of the sons of Noah. Reference to these people in the Bible clearly indicate that they have colored (black) skin (Jer 13:23) ). Simon of this passage may therefore be a black man who probably came on religious pilgrimage at Jerusalem at the time of the judgment and crucifixion of Christ. As he was coming out of the country, he was compelled by the Roman soldiers to carry the cross of Christ to the place of crucifixion. Mark further identified him as the father of Rufus, one of the great fellow laborers with Paul the Apostle (Rom 16:13). Simon came at the last minute of Jesus’ earthly ministry to carry the cross to Golgotha, a prophetic indication of the role of Africans in God’s end-time missiological campaign. The students of Christian history will clearly see the divine order in the sequence of the appearance of people, and races in God’s mission project. God began with the Semite (from where the Jews came), entering into covenant relationship with them that will later affect the whole world. The children of Japheth, from where the Europeans came out took over the mantle after the death of Christ, taking the gospel to the corners of the earth. At this very end-time, as the church is warming up for the second coming of Christ, the center of mission attention is now Africa, the descendant of Ham representing Simon the Cyrenian carrying the cross to the last stop. Prophet Zephaniah best captures this prophetic projection in Zeph 3:10 “From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, my suppliants, even the daughters of my dispersed, shall bring mine offering.” The Psalmist also declares “Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God” (Ps. 68:30). Of a more particular attention is a description of a people and nation, beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, that will be part of this global missiological revival, a description that resembles that of Nigeria “In that time shall the present be brought unto the Lord of hosts of a people scattered and peeled, and from a people terrible from their beginning hitherto; a nation meted out and trodden under foot, whose land the rivers have spoiled, to the place of the name of the Lord of hosts, the mount Zion.” (Isa 18:7). The only African nation politically and geographically strategic and contextually fitted into the description above is Nigeria. It is the only nation beyond Ethiopia that has its land strategically divided by waters. Nigeria currently has the largest concentration of blacks in the world and the only black nation that has its nationals scattered almost everywhere in the world. Apart from this is also the fact that Nigerian has her evangelists and missionaries all over the world doing great exploits. As an African and more specifically as a Nigerian and a child of God, I must locate myself in this end time prophetic agenda, and like Simon the Cyrenian be prepared to carry the cross to Golgotha. This is the African time, the season and the time of Ham and Cush to rise and shine and demonstrate the power of the Kingdom of God. I must say that in the kingdom expansion project currently going on globally; Africans are at the fore front. This mission agenda is therefore a strategic agenda and destiny that Nigeria must fulfill. No doubt that the Lord has deposited a lot of spiritual and material resources in Nigeria to take care of nations. It is also obvious that the enemy is struggling to frustrate this great divine investment. Nigeria is a nation of destiny with the highest concentration of blacks. God has equally deposited enormous resources in Nigeria, an investment that must bring corresponding dividends. It is however, a tale of woes as we refuse to fully fulfill this great destiny. The economic situation of the country is a sorry case and this has produced very many other serious problems. I believe strongly that God has brought President Goodluck Jonathan on scene to fix the problems and set a new leadership paradigm that will reposition Nigeria in the new global order. I continue to see my President as the modern day Moses to lead the long awaited emancipation of this country as the nation is reformed and her history re-written. It is really challenging that the current socio-economic and political condition of Nigeria does not reflect the prophetic potential and destiny of the nation. It is very pathetic that in Nigeria today: 1. About 60% of Nigerians live below $1 (N150) a day. This is the main reason for the many criminalities in the system. Some few people are eating to the point of vomiting while the larger majority is starving to death. 2. More than 6.9 million Nigerian children of primary school age are not in school. An uneducated mind is a potential danger to the society. 3. An estimated 800 Nigerian women die for every 100,000 live births. 4. About 200 out of every 1,000 Nigerian babies die before they are 5 years old. 5. Nigeria is losing about 350sq km to desert encroachment annually. With our gas reserve, no household in Nigeria should be using firewood or charcoal for cooking. The gas sector reform is tilted toward rhetoric and abysmal corruption. We also refuse to practically explore the technology of bio-gas. We urgently need a policy shift that will increase social expenditure, inclusion of the poor in public budgeting, macroeconomic balance, effective resource utilization, strengthening of the public policy instruments that promote development and equality, radical reduction of recurrent expenditure, determined efforts at reviving non-oil sectors of the economy and accelerated industrialization. Infrastructures in Nigeria are in a serious state of decay. Investment and industry can not grow in an environment where basic infrastructures are not guaranteed. A nation of about 140 million people with the erratic power generation of less than 3,500 megawatt is only joking when talking of serious industrial revolution. Vision 20:20:20 can only be taken serious if government is practically serious about restoring infrastructures. We must equally create investment friendly climate through a combination of legal, tax and other measures that will encourage genuine investors especially the indigenous ones. Unless the current resource looting is stopped, and our resources are properly rechanneled towards real practical, evenly, distributed development, Nigerian economic situation may remain in that same coma. We must arise and together build a better Nigeria we can all be proud of! I pray that our president will be a true Goodluck to the drowning Nigeria Economic situation. To redeem, and achieve our economic potentials and destiny, our nation must go back to God and also take the right economic and leadership steps. . If President Goodluck Jonathan will not disappoint God like Saul, then he must be prepared to align himself with God as he assiduously work to tackle the following menace and change the current socio-political and economic equation of Nigeria. 1. Wealth Distribution: We do not need a seer to predict the danger inherent in a society that has the gap between the rich and the poor so vastly wide. The dangerous situation in Nigeria now is the gradual elimination of the social and economic middle class. It is either you are highly rich or you are poor. The situation keeps degenerating and the attendant frustration of the inability of the government to arrest the trend is the increase in criminality in the society. The economic situation of Nigeria now is “murdering”. The cost of a normal plate of food is averagely N200 and to eat three (3) square meal a day means an average person will spend N18, 000 a month on food alone. If government is struggling to pay N18, 000 minimum wages and it can afford to pay some few selected individuals more than 400 million naira per head in the same economic situation, then you can understand why it will be very difficult to curb criminality in our country. It is the contradictions in the system that is producing criminality. We need a new political and economic order that can expose the in-equities, unequal power relations, inequalities and hegemonic class relations that underpin conflict in the country. National wealth must be redistributed. Government cannot afford to pay terribly fat salaries to political officers when it cannot pay N18, 000 minimum wages which is even grossly inadequate. When we bridge the gap between the rich and the poor we will be addressing many other issues. President Jonathan must be sincere to work toward wealth re-distribution then he will have peace in governance. 2. Absurdity of one commodity Export economy: One other major distortion of our economy is the failure of the government to diversify the economy stay. After more than fifty (50) years of existence as a nation, we have not been able to develop the various facets of our economy. We still continue in the “rentier” economic style. Nigeria’s oil wealth and the revenue derived from the industry over the decades have not manifested in improved, corresponding infrastructural development, wealth generation, poverty reductions and appreciation in living standard for majority of Nigerians. Other sectors of the economy have been neglected instead we have taken to “share-share” life, resulting in political instability and the horrendous level of corruption that is visible everywhere. The political and economic capitalist elites are bent on not allowing the oil revenue to be channeled toward holistic development of the various aspects of the economy but rather confine the wealth only within their enclaves. President Jonathan must rise up to the task of using the oil wealth for massive development of other sectors and a radical transformation of the nation’s infrastructure. It is a shame that South Africa deployed 5 billion dollars to generate additional 3,000 megawatts of electricity whereas after Nigeria spent more than $16billion over a period of about ten (10) years, our electricity generation rather dropped below 3,500 megawatt. Part of individual’s building project now is the sinking of boreholes because the State cannot adequately provide water for the citizen. Virtually every road you travel in Nigeria today is death traps, “pot holes” and “man holes” everywhere. V.I.O is checking vehicles for road worthiness but who is checking the State for the “driving or car worthiness” of the roads? After fifty (50) years, what can we say about the agricultural sector of the economy? What has happened to our cocoa, coffee and palm? Sometimes, I wish oil should stop flowing in Nigeria so that we can wake up from our economic coma or slumber. President Jonathan must not disappoint God in revitalizing our country’s economy by coming up with a radical economic approach that will eradicate economic and political elites motivated by the terrible, desperate, greed-driven quest to corner oil wealth and rents only to their enclave. Jonathan must help build a new social pact with the people based on an emancipatory, transformative, and participatory developmental democracy. 3. Strangulating, global economic system: If Malaysia could do it, Asian power could achieve it, small Singapore nation succeeded in attaining breakthrough, then Nigeria under the leadership of Goodluck can equally attain it. If we don’t “localize globalization”, we may not be able to break even. I want to seriously beg President Jonathan not to fall victim to Bretton Wood Institutions’ diabolic economic template, the agenda of which will only favour the industrialized capitalist nations. We must come up with our own realistic economic policies that will help in industrializing our country instead of being the “junior partner” and supplier of raw materials and capital for the foreign countries. Why should we continue to export crude oil and agricultural raw produce and importing the finished products at very exorbitant prices? Some “local cartels” are bent on making Nigeria to continue to export crude oil and import petrol, kerosene, diesel and other oil products at unbelievable prices. 4. Dieing Education Sector: Nigeria economy is going down but the rate at which education is going down is faster than the general economic situation. The current situation of the nation’s education sector is terribly saddening. The corruption in the society has eaten very deep into the education sector. Learning from Ghana, when her economy was down in the 80s, education sector was not allowed to go down. It is very hard to get any WAEC/NECO Examination Centre where cheating is not the order of the day. The worst offenders are the unbridled private Secondary Schools where their owners in collaboration with the disappointing parents are bent on finding easy way avenue for the unserious students. Government should set up independent examination monitoring task force to randomly check exam centers to arrest the situation. Any school caught in any examination malpractices should be immediately closed down. Unless an independent task force, the education system is so corrupt that no rescue policy may succeed. In the gang-up against educational progress in our country, are the many elements in the Ministry of Education, WAEC and NECO and the dangerous greedy private school owners who are greed driven. These elements connive together, feeding corruption in the system and encouraging examination malpractices. The earlier government does something, the better. One major reason for the mass failure is the reliance of students on examination leakages. Our students will only seat up when they discover there is no room again for examination malpractices. We also need to redefine our tertiary system to make its focus relevant to the current national needs. There is no serious link between our tertiary educational system and industrial/manufacturers world. We need a complete “reconfiguration” of the content of our tertiary education to make it relevant to our context. Mr. President, heaven is counting on you to lead this new dispensation that will bring about radical emancipatory transformation and reposition Nigeria as a leading economy – a pacesetter for the whole of Africa. You can do it, we can do it!
PROPHETIC DESTINY OF NIGERIA September 5, 2013 at 12:10am THE PROPHETIC DESTINY OF NIGERIA(By Rev Dele Kolade Abraham's Tabernacle Sagamu Ogun State Nigeria) Every nation exists for a divine purpose, so is Nigeria in comity of nations. Our nation, Nigeria, has a prophetic and political significant beginning and she occupies a special place in God’s global redemptive agenda. From her formation, God has been at work and control. Even though many may consider the formation of Nigeria as a very strategic colonial manipulation or agenda but in the midst of all these, the hand of God is clearly seen. The process of the formation of this great nation which began in the amalgamation of the 3 protectorates in 1914 only fulfilled the overall agenda of God for mission and prophetic exploit. As a nation, even before time, we pre-existed in the mind of God. It is therefore a prophetic arrangement that the three protectorates will be amalgamated, forming the largest pool of black Africans worldwide. In the record of the table of Nations in Genesis Chapter ten, a panoramic, chronological prophetic agenda was strategically set out that will determine the various prophetic dispensations which will in turn determine the global redemptive destinies in the table of Nations and the ensuing historical development, a symmetrical panoramic, prophetic developments and generational manifestation was set out. This development began with Africa and as the dawn of the end-time sets, in God’s missiological campaign, Africa is coming back to the limelight as the new pace setter. Nigeria is the most populated Black Country in the world, as well as the most populated country in Africa (about 160 million). Africa is very prominent in the biblical history and prophetic record from the table and origin of Nations captured in Genesis Chapter ten. Ham, one of the sons of Noah is believed to be the father of the other branches of gentiles, including Egyptians, Abyssinians, and kindred groups (The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database,©1962 by Moody Press). Mizraim, one of the sons of Ham as indicated in Gen. 10:6 is also regarded as Egypt. Sometime also, Cush, the first son of Ham is interchangeably used for Ethiopia like the case of Dan. 11:43. In this translation, the word translated as “Ethiopian” is the plural of the word “kuwshiy” which according to Biblesoft’s New Exhaustive Strong’s Number and Concordance with Expanded Greek-Hebrew Dictionary means descendants of Cush or in other words, people of dark skin colour and it is commonly translated as Cush or Cushite in many Old Testament passages. It does not necessarily mean peoples in the modern nation of Ethiopia. In Biblical history and redemptive prophecies, Africa has featured significantly. The first crowned king after the flood was of African descent, Nimrod, the first son of Cush. Egypt significantly featured in the Old Testament history as a wealthy place (Ex. 12:34-35). It was also at Egypt that God incubated and prepared the nation of Israel. In Num. 12:1, Moses’ wife (Zipporah) was identified as an Ethiopian. Asenath, the wife of Joseph who bore him Manasseh and Ephraim, is proudly and Egyptian woman. Ebed-Melech, the man who saved Prophet Jeremiah was a Cushite, an African (Jer. 38:7-13). When Herod was looking for the Baby Jesus to kill, the Angel of the Lord directed Joseph to go to Africa (Egypt) for the safety of Messiah and his family. Egypt was a safe haven for Jesus. Of a very significant importance to end-time global missiology was the place of Simon the Cyrenian, the North-African man who carried the cross of Jesus to Golgotha. This singular, last hour assignment of Simon the Cyrenian prophetically represent what role and place is reserved for Africa this end-time as far as global missiological campaign is concerned. The children of Ham and for that matter, the descendants of Cush at this end-time will be at the forefront of the global mission campaign. Infact, Africans will have to take the gospel back to Europe. This is the high point of mission agenda that will be led by Africans. Considering Nigeria as the only nation with the largest concentration of blacks in the world, Nigeria is at the center of God’s prophetic agenda for the global redemptive move. In biblical chronoprophecy, as Simon the Cyrenian carried the cross to Golgotha, so will the sons of Ham, and for that matter the Cushite be at the forefront of global mission campaign. Nigeria, being the nation with the largest number of blacks will lead in this campaign. This singular account of the cross bearing by Simon the Cyrenian brings a great illumination to the way the history of the church is read, and the missiological adventures that follows the resurrection story. Simon the Cyrenian mentioned in this passage is an African. Cyrene is located around Libya. At the time of Christ, the inhabitants of the present Libya, Ethiopia and Egypt were predominantly black Africans, the descendants of Cush, one of the sons of Noah. Reference to these people in the Bible clearly indicate that they have colored (black) skin (Jer 13:23) ). Simon of this passage may therefore be a black man who probably came on religious pilgrimage at Jerusalem at the time of the judgment and crucifixion of Christ. As he was coming out of the country, he was compelled by the Roman soldiers to carry the cross of Christ to the place of crucifixion. Mark further identified him as the father of Rufus, one of the great fellow laborers with Paul the Apostle (Rom 16:13). Simon came at the last minute of Jesus’ earthly ministry to carry the cross to Golgotha, a prophetic indication of the role of Africans in God’s end-time missiological campaign. The students of Christian history will clearly see the divine order in the sequence of the appearance of people, and races in God’s mission project. God began with the Semite (from where the Jews came), entering into covenant relationship with them that will later affect the whole world. The children of Japheth, from where the Europeans came out took over the mantle after the death of Christ, taking the gospel to the corners of the earth. At this very end-time, as the church is warming up for the second coming of Christ, the center of mission attention is now Africa, the descendant of Ham representing Simon the Cyrenian carrying the cross to the last stop. Prophet Zephaniah best captures this prophetic projection in Zeph 3:10 “From beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, my suppliants, even the daughters of my dispersed, shall bring mine offering.” The Psalmist also declares “Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God” (Ps. 68:30). Of a more particular attention is a description of a people and nation, beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, that will be part of this global missiological revival, a description that resembles that of Nigeria “In that time shall the present be brought unto the Lord of hosts of a people scattered and peeled, and from a people terrible from their beginning hitherto; a nation meted out and trodden under foot, whose land the rivers have spoiled, to the place of the name of the Lord of hosts, the mount Zion.” (Isa 18:7). The only African nation politically and geographically strategic and contextually fitted into the description above is Nigeria. It is the only nation beyond Ethiopia that has its land strategically divided by waters. Nigeria currently has the largest concentration of blacks in the world and the only black nation that has its nationals scattered almost everywhere in the world. Apart from this is also the fact that Nigerian has her evangelists and missionaries all over the world doing great exploits. As an African and more specifically as a Nigerian and a child of God, I must locate myself in this end time prophetic agenda, and like Simon the Cyrenian be prepared to carry the cross to Golgotha. This is the African time, the season and the time of Ham and Cush to rise and shine and demonstrate the power of the Kingdom of God. I must say that in the kingdom expansion project currently going on globally; Africans are at the fore front. This mission agenda is therefore a strategic agenda and destiny that Nigeria must fulfill. No doubt that the Lord has deposited a lot of spiritual and material resources in Nigeria to take care of nations. It is also obvious that the enemy is struggling to frustrate this great divine investment. Nigeria is a nation of destiny with the highest concentration of blacks. God has equally deposited enormous resources in Nigeria, an investment that must bring corresponding dividends. It is however, a tale of woes as we refuse to fully fulfill this great destiny. The economic situation of the country is a sorry case and this has produced very many other serious problems. I believe strongly that God has brought President Goodluck Jonathan on scene to fix the problems and set a new leadership paradigm that will reposition Nigeria in the new global order. I continue to see my President as the modern day Moses to lead the long awaited emancipation of this country as the nation is reformed and her history re-written. It is really challenging that the current socio-economic and political condition of Nigeria does not reflect the prophetic potential and destiny of the nation. It is very pathetic that in Nigeria today: 1. About 60% of Nigerians live below $1 (N150) a day. This is the main reason for the many criminalities in the system. Some few people are eating to the point of vomiting while the larger majority is starving to death. 2. More than 6.9 million Nigerian children of primary school age are not in school. An uneducated mind is a potential danger to the society. 3. An estimated 800 Nigerian women die for every 100,000 live births. 4. About 200 out of every 1,000 Nigerian babies die before they are 5 years old. 5. Nigeria is losing about 350sq km to desert encroachment annually. With our gas reserve, no household in Nigeria should be using firewood or charcoal for cooking. The gas sector reform is tilted toward rhetoric and abysmal corruption. We also refuse to practically explore the technology of bio-gas. We urgently need a policy shift that will increase social expenditure, inclusion of the poor in public budgeting, macroeconomic balance, effective resource utilization, strengthening of the public policy instruments that promote development and equality, radical reduction of recurrent expenditure, determined efforts at reviving non-oil sectors of the economy and accelerated industrialization. Infrastructures in Nigeria are in a serious state of decay. Investment and industry can not grow in an environment where basic infrastructures are not guaranteed. A nation of about 140 million people with the erratic power generation of less than 3,500 megawatt is only joking when talking of serious industrial revolution. Vision 20:20:20 can only be taken serious if government is practically serious about restoring infrastructures. We must equally create investment friendly climate through a combination of legal, tax and other measures that will encourage genuine investors especially the indigenous ones. Unless the current resource looting is stopped, and our resources are properly rechanneled towards real practical, evenly, distributed development, Nigerian economic situation may remain in that same coma. We must arise and together build a better Nigeria we can all be proud of! I pray that our president will be a true Goodluck to the drowning Nigeria Economic situation. To redeem, and achieve our economic potentials and destiny, our nation must go back to God and also take the right economic and leadership steps. . If President Goodluck Jonathan will not disappoint God like Saul, then he must be prepared to align himself with God as he assiduously work to tackle the following menace and change the current socio-political and economic equation of Nigeria. 1. Wealth Distribution: We do not need a seer to predict the danger inherent in a society that has the gap between the rich and the poor so vastly wide. The dangerous situation in Nigeria now is the gradual elimination of the social and economic middle class. It is either you are highly rich or you are poor. The situation keeps degenerating and the attendant frustration of the inability of the government to arrest the trend is the increase in criminality in the society. The economic situation of Nigeria now is “murdering”. The cost of a normal plate of food is averagely N200 and to eat three (3) square meal a day means an average person will spend N18, 000 a month on food alone. If government is struggling to pay N18, 000 minimum wages and it can afford to pay some few selected individuals more than 400 million naira per head in the same economic situation, then you can understand why it will be very difficult to curb criminality in our country. It is the contradictions in the system that is producing criminality. We need a new political and economic order that can expose the in-equities, unequal power relations, inequalities and hegemonic class relations that underpin conflict in the country. National wealth must be redistributed. Government cannot afford to pay terribly fat salaries to political officers when it cannot pay N18, 000 minimum wages which is even grossly inadequate. When we bridge the gap between the rich and the poor we will be addressing many other issues. President Jonathan must be sincere to work toward wealth re-distribution then he will have peace in governance. 2. Absurdity of one commodity Export economy: One other major distortion of our economy is the failure of the government to diversify the economy stay. After more than fifty (50) years of existence as a nation, we have not been able to develop the various facets of our economy. We still continue in the “rentier” economic style. Nigeria’s oil wealth and the revenue derived from the industry over the decades have not manifested in improved, corresponding infrastructural development, wealth generation, poverty reductions and appreciation in living standard for majority of Nigerians. Other sectors of the economy have been neglected instead we have taken to “share-share” life, resulting in political instability and the horrendous level of corruption that is visible everywhere. The political and economic capitalist elites are bent on not allowing the oil revenue to be channeled toward holistic development of the various aspects of the economy but rather confine the wealth only within their enclaves. President Jonathan must rise up to the task of using the oil wealth for massive development of other sectors and a radical transformation of the nation’s infrastructure. It is a shame that South Africa deployed 5 billion dollars to generate additional 3,000 megawatts of electricity whereas after Nigeria spent more than $16billion over a period of about ten (10) years, our electricity generation rather dropped below 3,500 megawatt. Part of individual’s building project now is the sinking of boreholes because the State cannot adequately provide water for the citizen. Virtually every road you travel in Nigeria today is death traps, “pot holes” and “man holes” everywhere. V.I.O is checking vehicles for road worthiness but who is checking the State for the “driving or car worthiness” of the roads? After fifty (50) years, what can we say about the agricultural sector of the economy? What has happened to our cocoa, coffee and palm? Sometimes, I wish oil should stop flowing in Nigeria so that we can wake up from our economic coma or slumber. President Jonathan must not disappoint God in revitalizing our country’s economy by coming up with a radical economic approach that will eradicate economic and political elites motivated by the terrible, desperate, greed-driven quest to corner oil wealth and rents only to their enclave. Jonathan must help build a new social pact with the people based on an emancipatory, transformative, and participatory developmental democracy. 3. Strangulating, global economic system: If Malaysia could do it, Asian power could achieve it, small Singapore nation succeeded in attaining breakthrough, then Nigeria under the leadership of Goodluck can equally attain it. If we don’t “localize globalization”, we may not be able to break even. I want to seriously beg President Jonathan not to fall victim to Bretton Wood Institutions’ diabolic economic template, the agenda of which will only favour the industrialized capitalist nations. We must come up with our own realistic economic policies that will help in industrializing our country instead of being the “junior partner” and supplier of raw materials and capital for the foreign countries. Why should we continue to export crude oil and agricultural raw produce and importing the finished products at very exorbitant prices? Some “local cartels” are bent on making Nigeria to continue to export crude oil and import petrol, kerosene, diesel and other oil products at unbelievable prices. 4. Dieing Education Sector: Nigeria economy is going down but the rate at which education is going down is faster than the general economic situation. The current situation of the nation’s education sector is terribly saddening. The corruption in the society has eaten very deep into the education sector. Learning from Ghana, when her economy was down in the 80s, education sector was not allowed to go down. It is very hard to get any WAEC/NECO Examination Centre where cheating is not the order of the day. The worst offenders are the unbridled private Secondary Schools where their owners in collaboration with the disappointing parents are bent on finding easy way avenue for the unserious students. Government should set up independent examination monitoring task force to randomly check exam centers to arrest the situation. Any school caught in any examination malpractices should be immediately closed down. Unless an independent task force, the education system is so corrupt that no rescue policy may succeed. In the gang-up against educational progress in our country, are the many elements in the Ministry of Education, WAEC and NECO and the dangerous greedy private school owners who are greed driven. These elements connive together, feeding corruption in the system and encouraging examination malpractices. The earlier government does something, the better. One major reason for the mass failure is the reliance of students on examination leakages. Our students will only seat up when they discover there is no room again for examination malpractices. We also need to redefine our tertiary system to make its focus relevant to the current national needs. There is no serious link between our tertiary educational system and industrial/manufacturers world. We need a complete “reconfiguration” of the content of our tertiary education to make it relevant to our context. Mr. President, heaven is counting on you to lead this new dispensation that will bring about radical emancipatory transformation and reposition Nigeria as a leading economy – a pacesetter for the whole of Africa. You can do it, we can do it!
NIGERIA'S ECONOMIC EMANCIPATION August 31, 2011 at 8:52am NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC EMANCIPATION, THE WAY FORWARD That Nigeria is very strategic in God’s prophetic agenda for Africa and the World at large is a clear fact. Nigeria is a nation of destiny with the highest concentration of blacks. God has equally deposited enormous resources in Nigeria, an investment that must bring corresponding dividends. It is however, a tale of woes as we refuse to fully fulfill this great destiny. The economic situation of the country is a sorry case and this has produced very many other serious problems. I believe strongly that God has brought President Goodluck Jonathan on scene to fix the problems and set a new leadership paradigm that will reposition Nigeria in the new global order. I continue to see my President as the modern day Moses to lead the long awaited emancipation of this country as the nation is reformed and her history re-written. If President Goodluck Jonathan will not disappoint God like Saul, then he must be prepared to align himself with God as he assiduously work to tackle the following menace and change the current socio-political and economic equation of Nigeria. Wealth Distribution: We do not need a seer to predict the danger inherent in a society that has the gap between the rich and the poor so vastly wide. The dangerous situation in Nigeria now is the gradual elimination of the social and economic middle class. It is either you are highly rich or you are poor. The situation keeps degenerating and the attendant frustration of the inability of the government to arrest the trend is the increase in criminality in the society. The economic situation of Nigeria now is “murdering”. The cost of a normal plate of food is averagely N200 and to eat three (3) square meal a day means an average person will spend N18, 000 a month on food alone. If government is struggling to pay N18, 000 minimum wages and it can afford to pay some few selected individuals more than 400 million naira per head in the same economic situation, then you can understand why it will be very difficult to curb criminality in our country. It is the contradictions in the system that is producing criminality. We need a new political and economic order that can expose the in-equities, unequal power relations, inequalities and hegemonic class relations that underpin conflict in the country. National wealth must be redistributed. Government cannot afford to pay terribly fat salaries to political officers when it cannot pay N18, 000 minimum wages which is even grossly inadequate. When we bridge the gap between the rich and the poor we will be addressing many other issues. President Jonathan must be sincere to work toward wealth re-distribution then he will have peace in governance. 2. Absurdity of one commodity Export economy: One other major distortion of our economy is the failure of the government to diversify the economy stay. After more than fifty (50) years of existence as a nation, we have not been able to develop the various facets of our economy. We still continue in the “rentier” economic style. Nigeria’s oil wealth and the revenue derived from the industry over the decades have not manifested in improved, corresponding infrastructural development, wealth generation, poverty reductions and appreciation in living - 2 - standard for majority of Nigerians. Other sectors of the economy have been neglected instead we have taken to “share-share” life, resulting in political instability and the horrendous level of corruption that is visible everywhere. The political and economic capitalist elites are bent on not allowing the oil revenue to be channeled toward holistic development of the various aspects of the economy but rather confine the wealth only within their enclaves. President Jonathan must rise up to the task of using the oil wealth for massive development of other sectors and a radical transformation of the nation’s infrastructure. It is a shame that South Africa deployed 5 billion dollars to generate additional 3,000 megawatts of electricity whereas after Nigeria spent more than $16billion over a period of about ten (10) years, our electricity generation rather dropped below 3,500 megawatt. Part of individual’s building project now is the sinking of boreholes because the State cannot adequately provide water for the citizen. Virtually every road you travel in Nigeria today is death traps, “pot holes” and “man holes” everywhere. V.I.O is checking vehicles for road worthiness but who is checking the State for the “driving or car worthiness” of the roads? After fifty (50) years, what can we say about the agricultural sector of the economy? What has happened to our cocoa, coffee and palm? Sometimes, I wish oil should stop flowing in Nigeria so that we can wake up from our economic coma or slumber. President Jonathan must not disappoint God in revitalizing our country’s economy by coming up with a radical economic approach that will eradicate economic and political elites motivated by the terrible, desperate, greed-driven quest to corner oil wealth and rents only to their enclave. Jonathan must help build a new social pact with the people based on an emancipatory, transformative, and participatory developmental democracy. 3. Strangulating, global economic system: If Malaysia could do it, Asian power could achieve it, small Singapore nation succeeded in attaining breakthrough, then Nigeria under the leadership of Goodluck can equally attain it. If we don’t “localize globalization”, we may not be able to break even. I want to seriously beg President Jonathan not to fall victim to Bretton Wood Institutions’ diabolic economic template, the agenda of which will only favour the industrialized capitalist nations. We must come up with our own realistic economic policies that will help in industrializing our country instead of being the “junior partner” and supplier of raw materials and capital for the foreign countries. Why should we continue to export crude oil and agricultural raw produce and importing the finished products at very exorbitant prices? Some “local cartels” are bent on making Nigeria to continue to export crude oil and import petrol, kerosene, diesel and other oil products at unbelievable prices. - 3 - 4. Dieing Education Sector: Nigeria economy is going down but the rate at which education is going down is faster than the general economic situation. The current situation of the nation’s education sector is terribly saddening. The corruption in the society has eaten very deep into the education sector. Learning from Ghana, when her economy was down in the 80s, education sector was not allowed to go down. It is very hard to get any WAEC/NECO Examination Centre where cheating is not the order of the day. The worst offenders are the unbridled private Secondary Schools where their owners in collaboration with the disappointing parents are bent on finding easy way avenue for the unserious students. Government should set up independent examination monitoring task force to randomly check exam centers to arrest the situation. Any school caught in any examination malpractices should be immediately closed down. Unless an independent task force, the education system is so corrupt that no rescue policy may succeed. In the gang-up against educational progress in our country, are the many elements in the Ministry of Education, WAEC and NECO and the dangerous greedy private school owners who are greed driven. These elements connive together, feeding corruption in the system and encouraging examination malpractices. The earlier government does something, the better. One major reason for the mass failure is the reliance of students on examination leakages. Our students will only seat up when they discover there is no room again for examination malpractices. We also need to redefine our tertiary system to make its focus relevant to the current national needs. There is no serious link between our tertiary educational system and industrial/manufacturers world. We need a complete “reconfiguration” of the content of our tertiary education to make it relevant to our context. Mr. President, heaven is counting on you to lead this new dispensation that will bring about radical emancipatory transformation and reposition Nigeria as a leading economy – a pacesetter for the whole of Africa. You can do it, we can do it! Revd. ‘Dele Kolade Senior Pastor, Barnawa Baptist Church, P. O. Box 4337, Barnawa, Kaduna. E-mail: kolade2002@yahoo.com www.delekolade.blogspot,com The writer is also currently a Postgraduate Student of the Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna (Master in International Affairs and Strategic Studies (MIASS).
NIGERIA'S ECONOMIC EMANCIPATION August 31, 2011 at 8:52am NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC EMANCIPATION, THE WAY FORWARD That Nigeria is very strategic in God’s prophetic agenda for Africa and the World at large is a clear fact. Nigeria is a nation of destiny with the highest concentration of blacks. God has equally deposited enormous resources in Nigeria, an investment that must bring corresponding dividends. It is however, a tale of woes as we refuse to fully fulfill this great destiny. The economic situation of the country is a sorry case and this has produced very many other serious problems. I believe strongly that God has brought President Goodluck Jonathan on scene to fix the problems and set a new leadership paradigm that will reposition Nigeria in the new global order. I continue to see my President as the modern day Moses to lead the long awaited emancipation of this country as the nation is reformed and her history re-written. If President Goodluck Jonathan will not disappoint God like Saul, then he must be prepared to align himself with God as he assiduously work to tackle the following menace and change the current socio-political and economic equation of Nigeria. Wealth Distribution: We do not need a seer to predict the danger inherent in a society that has the gap between the rich and the poor so vastly wide. The dangerous situation in Nigeria now is the gradual elimination of the social and economic middle class. It is either you are highly rich or you are poor. The situation keeps degenerating and the attendant frustration of the inability of the government to arrest the trend is the increase in criminality in the society. The economic situation of Nigeria now is “murdering”. The cost of a normal plate of food is averagely N200 and to eat three (3) square meal a day means an average person will spend N18, 000 a month on food alone. If government is struggling to pay N18, 000 minimum wages and it can afford to pay some few selected individuals more than 400 million naira per head in the same economic situation, then you can understand why it will be very difficult to curb criminality in our country. It is the contradictions in the system that is producing criminality. We need a new political and economic order that can expose the in-equities, unequal power relations, inequalities and hegemonic class relations that underpin conflict in the country. National wealth must be redistributed. Government cannot afford to pay terribly fat salaries to political officers when it cannot pay N18, 000 minimum wages which is even grossly inadequate. When we bridge the gap between the rich and the poor we will be addressing many other issues. President Jonathan must be sincere to work toward wealth re-distribution then he will have peace in governance. 2. Absurdity of one commodity Export economy: One other major distortion of our economy is the failure of the government to diversify the economy stay. After more than fifty (50) years of existence as a nation, we have not been able to develop the various facets of our economy. We still continue in the “rentier” economic style. Nigeria’s oil wealth and the revenue derived from the industry over the decades have not manifested in improved, corresponding infrastructural development, wealth generation, poverty reductions and appreciation in living - 2 - standard for majority of Nigerians. Other sectors of the economy have been neglected instead we have taken to “share-share” life, resulting in political instability and the horrendous level of corruption that is visible everywhere. The political and economic capitalist elites are bent on not allowing the oil revenue to be channeled toward holistic development of the various aspects of the economy but rather confine the wealth only within their enclaves. President Jonathan must rise up to the task of using the oil wealth for massive development of other sectors and a radical transformation of the nation’s infrastructure. It is a shame that South Africa deployed 5 billion dollars to generate additional 3,000 megawatts of electricity whereas after Nigeria spent more than $16billion over a period of about ten (10) years, our electricity generation rather dropped below 3,500 megawatt. Part of individual’s building project now is the sinking of boreholes because the State cannot adequately provide water for the citizen. Virtually every road you travel in Nigeria today is death traps, “pot holes” and “man holes” everywhere. V.I.O is checking vehicles for road worthiness but who is checking the State for the “driving or car worthiness” of the roads? After fifty (50) years, what can we say about the agricultural sector of the economy? What has happened to our cocoa, coffee and palm? Sometimes, I wish oil should stop flowing in Nigeria so that we can wake up from our economic coma or slumber. President Jonathan must not disappoint God in revitalizing our country’s economy by coming up with a radical economic approach that will eradicate economic and political elites motivated by the terrible, desperate, greed-driven quest to corner oil wealth and rents only to their enclave. Jonathan must help build a new social pact with the people based on an emancipatory, transformative, and participatory developmental democracy. 3. Strangulating, global economic system: If Malaysia could do it, Asian power could achieve it, small Singapore nation succeeded in attaining breakthrough, then Nigeria under the leadership of Goodluck can equally attain it. If we don’t “localize globalization”, we may not be able to break even. I want to seriously beg President Jonathan not to fall victim to Bretton Wood Institutions’ diabolic economic template, the agenda of which will only favour the industrialized capitalist nations. We must come up with our own realistic economic policies that will help in industrializing our country instead of being the “junior partner” and supplier of raw materials and capital for the foreign countries. Why should we continue to export crude oil and agricultural raw produce and importing the finished products at very exorbitant prices? Some “local cartels” are bent on making Nigeria to continue to export crude oil and import petrol, kerosene, diesel and other oil products at unbelievable prices. - 3 - 4. Dieing Education Sector: Nigeria economy is going down but the rate at which education is going down is faster than the general economic situation. The current situation of the nation’s education sector is terribly saddening. The corruption in the society has eaten very deep into the education sector. Learning from Ghana, when her economy was down in the 80s, education sector was not allowed to go down. It is very hard to get any WAEC/NECO Examination Centre where cheating is not the order of the day. The worst offenders are the unbridled private Secondary Schools where their owners in collaboration with the disappointing parents are bent on finding easy way avenue for the unserious students. Government should set up independent examination monitoring task force to randomly check exam centers to arrest the situation. Any school caught in any examination malpractices should be immediately closed down. Unless an independent task force, the education system is so corrupt that no rescue policy may succeed. In the gang-up against educational progress in our country, are the many elements in the Ministry of Education, WAEC and NECO and the dangerous greedy private school owners who are greed driven. These elements connive together, feeding corruption in the system and encouraging examination malpractices. The earlier government does something, the better. One major reason for the mass failure is the reliance of students on examination leakages. Our students will only seat up when they discover there is no room again for examination malpractices. We also need to redefine our tertiary system to make its focus relevant to the current national needs. There is no serious link between our tertiary educational system and industrial/manufacturers world. We need a complete “reconfiguration” of the content of our tertiary education to make it relevant to our context. Mr. President, heaven is counting on you to lead this new dispensation that will bring about radical emancipatory transformation and reposition Nigeria as a leading economy – a pacesetter for the whole of Africa. You can do it, we can do it! Revd. ‘Dele Kolade Senior Pastor, Barnawa Baptist Church, P. O. Box 4337, Barnawa, Kaduna. E-mail: kolade2002@yahoo.com www.delekolade.blogspot,com The writer is also a product of the Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna (Master in International Affairs and Strategic Studies (MIASS).
SECURITY MATTER October 19, 2011 at 8:48pm ALTERNATIVE SECURITY ARRANGEMENT, A BETTER OPTION FOR NIGERIA by Kolade Oladele on Wednesday, October 19, 2011 at 2:25pm IN ISSUES OF SECURITY QUESTIONS, THE ALTERNATIVE SECURITY STRATEGY IS FUNDAMENTAL I N T R O D U C T I O N The strategic 4As research approach will be used in addressing this very important epistemological issue of security. The anecdotal survey of all the issues will be done, using this to establish the theoretical framework of this paper, various important elements will be defined and explained. The analysis of the existing, conventional/traditional security arrangement will equally be done. In a careful dialectical manner, the concept of the alternative/non conventional security option will be examined. The two arrangements shall be tactically juxtaposed. An objective application of the submissions from the juxtaposition shall be attempted and then the paper will posit necessary actions to be taken based on the established fundamental nature of the Alternative Security Approach as the conclusion of the work. I must however state that the confine of this paper must be defined. Most of the practical issues of relevance shall be limited generally to Africa and Nigeria State in particular. Current Security Issues in our nation shall be used as the “litmus” of investigation and scientific evaluation of the two security approaches. CONCEPTUAL DEIFINITIONS 1. SECURITY: The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies (ISECOM) defines security as “a form of protection where a separation is created between the assets and the threat”. This includes but is not limited to the elimination of either the asset or the threat, Walter Lippmann (1944) views security as the capability of a country to protect its core values, both in terms that a State need not sacrifice core values in avoiding war and can maintain them by winning war. David Baldwin (1997) argues that pursuing security sometimes requires sacrificing other values, including marginal values and prime values. Richard Ullman (1983) has suggested that a decrease in vulnerability is security. Arnold Wolfers (1952) argues that “Security´ is generally a normative term. It is applied by nations “in order to be either expedient – a rational means towards an accepted end – or moral, the best or least evil course of action”. In the same way that people are different in sensing and identifying danger and threats, Wolfers argues that different nations also have different expectation of security. Not only is there a difference between forbearance of threats, but different nations also face different levels of threat because of their unique geographical, economic, ecological, and political environment. Barry Buzan (2000) views the study of security as more than a study of threats but also a study of which threats that can be tolerated and which requires immediate action. He sees the concept of security as not either power or peace, but something in between. At the International level, various States and Regional Organizations view Security differently. The United States is focusing on “renewing American leadership so that (it) can move effectively advance (its) interests” under the International System. America is trying to achieve this by integrating all the elements of its power and means of defense, diplomacy, and development to meet its objectives, including safety, welfare, values, and a righteous international order. China thinks that “International Security should be mutual while not one-sided, multilateral while not unilateral and comparative while not absolute ... Security should be based on mutual trust. A country’s role should be evaluated objectively and one country should not seek confrontation with another country through exaggerating its threats”. Russia’s aim is to protect the national interest of its people, society and nation in broad security terms. It seeks to form a multipolar world “on the basis of multilateral management of international economic, political, science and technological, environmental and informative integration”. The European Union has formed a broad security agenda and multilateral approach with the tri faceted objectives: To tackle threats; To extend the zone of security around Europe; To strengthen the international order. Brazil, Argentina, Chile and some other countries in South America are treating strategic stability as its core concept of security. Australian security concept is to safeguard the homeland, maintain regional and international stability, ensure international economy and trade developments and to spread human right and democracy. Australian security strategy is mainly built on its alliances with United States and Japan. Looking at the Africa’s security agenda, it is basically to promote and maintain international peace, security and prosperity by having closer cooperation and partnership between the United Nations, other international organizations and the African Union. 2. CONVENTIONAL/TRADITIONAL SECURITY The paradigm of the conventional security is based on realist construct of security in which the referent object of security is the State. The prevalence of this ideology reached its peak during the cold War. For almost half a century, major world power entrusted the security of their nation to a balance of power among States. In this sense, international stability relied on the premise that if State Security is maintained, and then the security of citizens will necessarily follow. Traditional security relied on the anarchistic balance of power, a military build-up between the United States and the Soviet Union (the two super powers) and on the absolute sovereignty of the nation State. States were considered as rational entities, natural interests and policy driven by the desire for absolute power. Security was purely seen as protection from outside invasion; executed during proxy conflicts using technical and military capabilities. Conventional/traditional security is in a sense similar to the developed concept of National Security which is traceable to the peace of Westphalia wherein the concept of a Sovereign State was established. It was Thomas Hobbes in his 1651 work “Leviathan” who stated that citizens yield to a powerful sovereign who in turn promises an end to civil and religious war, and to bring forth a lasting peace, and give him the right to conduct policy, including wage war or negotiate for peace for the good of the “commonwealth”, i.e. a mandate for national security. The Clausewitzian view of diplomacy and war being the instruments of furthering national cause, added to the view of national security being sought by nations by exercising self-interest at all times. This view came to be known as “classical realism” in international relation. In traditional sense, Harold Lasswell (1950) defines it as “freedom from foreign dictation”. Professor Charles Maier (1990) defines it through the lens of national power: “National Security...... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and well being.” The United States Armed Forces defines national security (of the United States) in the following manner: A collective term, encompassing both national defense, and foreign relations of the United States. Specifically, the condition provided by: a) A military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations; b) A favorable foreign relation position; or c) A defense posture capable of successfully resisting hostile or destructive action from within or without, overt or covert. In a sense, conventional security is seen as military security or the capability of a nation to defend itself, and/or deter military aggression. Alternatively, it means the use of force or cohesion to establish nation’s policy choices. Traditional or conventional security can be better censored using four navigating tools of Referent, Scope, Actor(s) and Means. REFERENT: Traditional security policies are designed to promote demands ascribed to the State. Other interests are subordinated to those of the State. Conventional Security arrangement is meant to protect a State’s boundaries, people, institutions and values. It is “State – Centered”. SCOPE: It seeks to defend States from external aggression. Walter Lippmann explains that State Security is about a State’s ability to deter or defeat an attack. It makes use of deterrence strategies to maintain the integrity of the State and protect the territory from external threats. ACTOR(S): The sovereign State is the sole actor, to ensure its own survival. Decision making power is centralized in the government, and the execution of strategies rarely involves the public. Conventional Security assumes that a sovereign State is operating in an anarchical international environment, in which there is no world governing body to enforce international rules of conduct. MEANS: Conventional Security relies upon building up national power and military defense. The common forms it takes are armament races, alliances, strategic boundaries etc. 3. HUMAN/NON-CONVENTIONAL/ALTERNATIVE SECURITY This is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the State. Human security holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability. As cold war tensions receded, it became clear that the security of citizen was threatened by hardships arising from internal State activities as well as external aggressors. Civil Wars were increasingly common and compounded existing poverty, disease, hunger, violence and human right abuses. Traditional security policies had effectively masked these underlying basic human needs in the face of State Security. Through neglect of its constituents, nation States had failed in their primary objectives. The fact that the conventional view of Security is grossly inadequate is made visible in the many hydra-headed security challenges we are facing now which are really defying the conventional approach’s solutions. Human/alternative security derives from the traditional concept of security from military threat to the safety of people and communities. It is an extension of mere existence (survival) to well-being and dignity of human beings. It varies from “a narrow term of prevention of violence to a broad comprehensive view that proposes development, human rights and traditional security together”. Human/alternative Security offers a critique of and advocates an alternative to the traditional State-based conception of security. Essentially, it argues that the proper referent for security is the individual and that State practices should reflect this rather than primarily focusing on securing borders through unilateral military action. The argument of human/alternative security approach is that the traditional conception of security is no longer relevant or effective in the highly interconnected and interdependent modern world in which global threats such as poverty, environmental degradation, and terrorism supersede the traditional security threat of interstate wars. Human/alternative security concept can equally be censored using the four elements employed on analyzing traditional/conventional security. The elements are Referent, Scope, Actor(s), and Means: REFERENT: Human security is people-centered. It focuses on protecting individuals. The important dimensions are to entail the well-being of individuals and respond to ordinary people’s needs in dealing with sources of threat. SCOPE: In addition to protecting the State from external aggression, human security would expand the scope of protection to include a broader range of threats, including environmental pollution, infectious diseases and economic deprivation. ACTOR(S): The realization of alternative security involves not only government, but a broader participation of different actors, via regional and international organizations, non-governmental organizations and local communities. MEANS: Human/alternative security not only prospects, but also empowers people and societies as a means of security. People contribute by identifying and implementing solutions to insecurity. There is an identified direct correlation between human security concept and human development. In Frances Stewart’s paper “Development and Security, he argues that security and development are deeply interconnected. – Human Security forms an important part of people’s well-being and is therefore an objective of development. An objective of development is “the enlargement of human choices”. Insecurity cuts life short and thwarts the use of human potential, thereby affecting the reaching of this object. – Lack of human security has adverse consequences on economic growth, and therefore development. Some development costs are obvious. For example, in wars, people who join the army or flee can no longer work productively. Also, destroying infrastructure reduces the productive capacity of the economy. – Imbalanced development that involves horizontal inequalities is an important source of conflict. Therefore, vicious cycle of lack of development which leads to conflict, then to lack of development, can readily emerge. Likewise, vicious cycles are possible, with high levels of human security, leading to development, which further promotes human security in return. Basically, both human security and development are people-centered. They place emphasis on the fact that people are the ultimate ends but not means. Both treat human as agents and therefore should be empowered to participate in the course. Secondly, both perspectives are multidimensional. Both address people’s dignity as well as their material and physical concerns. Lastly, both schools of thought consider poverty and inequality as the root cause of individual vulnerability. The concept of human security when compared with that of the traditional, conventional approach is more encompassing because it addresses existential realities bordering on development and human dignity. The holistic nature of human security is what majorly distinguishes it from the conventional approach. The all-encompassing nature of human security is better captured in the United Nations Development Program’s 1994 Human Development Report, where it is argued that the scope of global security should be expanded to include threats in seven areas: Economic Security: Economic security requires an assured basic income for individuals, usually from productive and remunerative work or, as a last resort, from a publicly financed safety net. In this sense, only about a quarter of the world’s people are presently economically secure. While the economic security problem may be more serious in developing countries, concern also arises in developed countries as well. Unemployment problems constitute an important factor underlying political tensions and ethnic violence. Food Security: Food security requires that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. According to the United Nations, the overall availability of food is not a problem, rather the problem often is the poor distribution of food and a lack of purchasing power. In the past, food security problems have been dealt with at both national and global levels. However, their impacts are limited. According to UN, the key is to tackle the problems relating to access to assets, work and assured income (related to economic security). Health Security: Health Security aims to guarantee a minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles. In developing countries, the major causes of death traditionally were infectious and parasitic diseases, whereas in industrialized countries, the major killers were diseases of the circulatory system. Today, lifestyle-related chronic diseases are leading killers worldwide, with 80 per cent of deaths from chronic diseases occurring in low-and middle-income countries. According to the United Nations, in both developing and industrial countries, threats to health security are usually greater for poor people in rural areas, particularly children. This is due to malnutrition and insufficient access to health services, clean water and other basic necessities. Environmental Security: Environmental security aims to protect people from the short-and long term ravages of nature, man-made threats in nature, and deterioration of the natural environment. In developing countries, lack of access to clean water resources is one of the greatest environmental threats. In industrial countries, one of the major threats is air pollution. Global warming, caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, is another environment security issue. Personal Security: Personal security aims to protect people from physical violence, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub-state actors, from domestic abuse, or from predatory adults. For many people, the greatest source of anxiety is crime, particularly violent crime. Community Security: Community security aims to protect people from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence. Traditional communities, particularly minority ethnic groups are often threatened. About half of the world’s states have experienced some inter-ethnic strife. The United Nations declared 1993 the Year of Indigenous People to highlight the continuing vulnerability of the 300 million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a widening spiral of violence. Political Security: Political security is concerned with whether people live in a society that honors their basic human rights. According to a survey conducted by Amnesty International, political repression, systematic torture, ill treatment or disappearance was still practiced in 110 countries. Human rights violations are most frequent during periods of political unrest. Along with repressing individuals and groups, governments may try to exercise control over ideas and information. Since then, human security has been receiving more attention from the key global development institutions, such as the World Bank. Tadjbakhsh, among others, traces the evolution of human security in international organizations, concluding that the concept has been manipulated and transformed considerably since 1994 to fit organizational interests. The 1994 UNDP Human Development Report (HDR) further proposes that increasing human security should entail: Investing in human development, not in arms; Engaging policy makers to address the emerging peace dividend; Giving the United Nations a clear mandate to promote and sustain development; Enlarging the concept of development cooperation so that it include all flows, not just aid; Agreeing that 20% national budget and 20% foreign aid be used for human development; and Establishing an economic security council. The report further elaborates on seven components to human security: Components of human security as per HDR 1994 report Type of Security Definition Threats Economic Security An assured basic income Poverty, unemployment, indebtedness, lack of income Food Security Physical and economic Hunger, famines and the lack access to basic food of physical and economic access to basic food Health Security Protection from diseases and Inadequate health care, new unhealthy lifestyles and recurrent diseases including epidemics and pandemics, poor nutrition and unsafe environment, unsafe lifestyles Environmental Healthy physical environment Environmental degradation, Security natural disasters, pollution and resource depletion Personal Security Security from physical From the state (torture), other violence states (war), groups of people (ethnic tension), individuals or gangs (crime), industrial, workplace or traffic accidents Community Safe membership in a group From the group (oppressive Security practices), between groups (ethnic violence), from dominant groups (e.g. indigenous people vulnerability), Type of Security Definition Threats Political Security Living in a society that honors Political or state repression, basic human rights including torture, disappearance, human rights violations, detention and imprisonment. SECURITY, AN INTRINSIC ASPECT OF DEVELOPMENT To equate development only with economic growth is a very inadequate characterization. For example, average per capita income does not really capture real income distribution of a state neither does it define many important aspects of human well being like health, education or security. There are insecurity related with well-being of a people e.g. possibility of economic vicissitudes, health crises, injury or death as a result of criminal or political violence continuous political unrest may lead to breakup of communities and families, forced immigration and the need to re-establish lives in alien environments, or even a suspended existence in refuge camps. Such condition can have negative impacts on people’s lives and consequently, negatively affect achievement of development. The security of human well being is therefore an important indicator of true development. The Nigerian state is plague with many security problems because the policy making are not seeing the intrinsic connection of security and development. Where the all inclusive, holistic development agenda is not truly and effectively pursued, insecurity can never be adequately dealt with. FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAKE CONVENTIONAL SECURITY OBSOLETE IN AFRICA, PARTICULARLY NIGERIA COLONIAL LEGACY: The colonial masters of African State are responsible for the many security problems we are gripping with. The colonial Lords founded only pseudo-States in Africa, and these States were stable only as long as colonial powers controlled them. The political elites left behind by the colonial rulers are selfishly fighting among themselves for control of tax revenue and proceed from sale of nature resource reserve and other privileges associated with access to power in these pseudo-states. This endemic political instability of African States is intended by her colonial Lord to facilitate their continual imperialist control of the African resource. Instability will deprive Africa from holistically development, lack of development will sustain the insecurity and eventually, perpetually the resources from Africa can continually be exploited by the West to service her own economic agenda and growth. The problem of slavery was also so extensive that it touched virtually every part of sub-Saharan African. The slave trade brought about enormous social, political and demographic instability to Africa. According to one expert, the population of sub-Saharan Africa in 1850 would have been double what it was in 1700. The population of sub-Saharan Africa in 1850 was roughly 50million. If there had not been the slave trade, it is estimated that this population would have been 100million. The bulk of the strong, working class that would have spear headed African development were taken to Europe to help develop Europe, a situation that has greatly reduced the pace of development in Africa, and a concomitant factor of insecurity in Africa. INTRA-STATE CONFLICTS: African State as they stand today were not created by African but by European Imperial powers at the Berlin Conference and African did not gain control of the foreign created states until recently, in the 1960s. Consequently, there is weak allegiance by citizens to these States. This is a major reason why African States during the past 50 years have been centers of many conflicts, particularly, civil wars, inter-tribal wars, violent communal conflicts and pogroms, wars of secession and even attempts at genocide. Africa, not surprisingly, is host to the largest number of refuges and internally displaced persons in the world. INEQUALITY: The recognized inequalities within a nation and between nations lead to poverty and generally poorer living conditions. For example, economic growth is necessary for development, but not all growth benefits the poor and socially excluded. A socially equal system should achieve fairness in wealth distribution and opportunity among everyone and provide efficient social services such as health, education and infrastructures. Where this is lacking, security can never be guaranteed. At the national level using Nigeria as an example, the wealth distribution is terribly lopsided. Less than 5% of the entire population is controlling more than 80% of the resource. There are also huge numbers of the populace who are politically marginalized. In a setting like this there will surely be unrest and internal conflicts that conventional security arrangement can never contain. The current debate on the removal of oil subsidy which will eventually increase common man hardship will surely worsen the current bad security situation. How will the largest oil producing state of the region not able to refine oil for domestic market and exportation but rather export crude oil and import refined oil? This is an arrangement to enrich the few “cabal” and the remove of the subsidy is a way of further milking the dying oppressed populace to enrich the bloatedly rich few. Such inequality only promotes passionate rebellion that military and police can not contain. The problem of N18, 000.00 minimum wage is a true indices of evaluation wealth distribution in Nigeria. A nation that can not afford N18,000.00 Minimum wage is able to pay a single politician who is not really adding any “serious value” to the national well being, a huge jumbo salary of more than 400 million. Where is the ethical and economical justification for the disparity? How can security be guaranteed in such an arrangement? The 419s, Boko Haram, Niger Delta insurgents, kidnappers are all product of inequalities in the system and conventional security approach can not tackle such issues. SUBMISSIONS FOR ACTIONS Looking at the strategic comparison between the existing security arrangement and the non-traditional, alternative option, and given the logical, inherent problems and inadequacies of the conventional approach, one can clearly see the strategic importance of the fundamentality of the alternative security option. Putting the established comparison within African context and particularly the Nigeria scenarios, the hydra headed security problems we are currently experiencing is a scientific proof of the failure of the conventional approach of gun and military/police cohesion. The security problem of Nigeria is firstly due to underdevelopment perpetuated by the colonial Lords and continued by the neo-colonialist,capitalist,political elites who are bent on continuing the agenda of the colonial masters. There is no doubt that there is a direct relationship between development and security. The principal submission through the investigation of this work is that: - Human security forms an important part of people’s well being and is therefore An objective of development - That lack of human security has adverse consequences on economic growth and Poverty and thereby on development; and - That the lack of development, or imbalanced development that involves sharp horizontal inequalities, is an important cause of conflict. - Inclusive, holistic development must be encouraged to ensure security instead of military (force) solution we are currently banking on - Insecurity will adversely affect elements of development - Development will positively affect security. R E F E R E N C E S Alkire, Sabina (2003): “A Conceptual Framework for Human Security”, Center for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE), Working Paper 2, London: University of Oxford. Buzan, B and L. Hanen (2009). The Evolution of International Security Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Buzan B; O. Weaver, et al. (1998) Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher. Clinton, H. (2010): “Remarks on the Obama Administrations National Security Strategy”. Retrieved October 14, 2011, from http://www.stae.gov/secretary/rm/2010/05/142312.htm. Elman, C. (2008) Realism, Security Studies: An Introduction. New York: Rout ledge. Gartzke, E. (2005): “Economic Freedom and Peace” in Economic Freedom of the World, Annual Report. Pp. 29.44 Hampson, F; (2002): Madness in the Multitude: Human Security and World Disorder. Ontario: Oxford University Press. http://www.humansecurityindex.org Kolodzie, E. (2005) Security and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. MacFarlane, S. Neil; Yuenfoong Khong (2006) eds. Human Security and the UN: A Critical History. Indiana: Indiana Press. Macmillian Dictionary (Online Version): http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british-security). Accessed October 14, 2011. Mbachu, O. and Eze, Chukwudi (2009) eds. Democracy and National Security: Issues, Challenges and Prospects. Kaduna: Medusa Academic Publisher. Navari, C. (2008) Liberalism. Security Studies: An Introduction. New York: Rout ledge. Paleri, Prabhakaran (2008). National Security: Imperatives and Challenges. New Delhi: Tata Mc. Graw-Hill. Stewart, Frances (2004): “Development and Security”, Center for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE), working paper 3, London: University of Oxford. Sheehan, M (2005). International Security: An Analytical Survey: London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Tad, bakhsh, S. and A. Chenoy (2007). Human Security: Concepts and Implications. New York: Routledge. Pp. 128-129. Thomas, C; (2001): “Global Governance, Development and Human Security: Exploring the Links”, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 22(2): 159-175. Waltz, K.Z. (1979): Theory of International Politics. New York: Random House. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. http.//www.wikipedia.org.
SECURITY MATTER October 19, 2011 at 8:48pm ALTERNATIVE SECURITY ARRANGEMENT, A BETTER OPTION FOR NIGERIA by Kolade Oladele on Wednesday, October 19, 2011 at 2:25pm IN ISSUES OF SECURITY QUESTIONS, THE ALTERNATIVE SECURITY STRATEGY IS FUNDAMENTAL I N T R O D U C T I O N The strategic 4As research approach will be used in addressing this very important epistemological issue of security. The anecdotal survey of all the issues will be done, using this to establish the theoretical framework of this paper, various important elements will be defined and explained. The analysis of the existing, conventional/traditional security arrangement will equally be done. In a careful dialectical manner, the concept of the alternative/non conventional security option will be examined. The two arrangements shall be tactically juxtaposed. An objective application of the submissions from the juxtaposition shall be attempted and then the paper will posit necessary actions to be taken based on the established fundamental nature of the Alternative Security Approach as the conclusion of the work. I must however state that the confine of this paper must be defined. Most of the practical issues of relevance shall be limited generally to Africa and Nigeria State in particular. Current Security Issues in our nation shall be used as the “litmus” of investigation and scientific evaluation of the two security approaches. CONCEPTUAL DEIFINITIONS 1. SECURITY: The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies (ISECOM) defines security as “a form of protection where a separation is created between the assets and the threat”. This includes but is not limited to the elimination of either the asset or the threat, Walter Lippmann (1944) views security as the capability of a country to protect its core values, both in terms that a State need not sacrifice core values in avoiding war and can maintain them by winning war. David Baldwin (1997) argues that pursuing security sometimes requires sacrificing other values, including marginal values and prime values. Richard Ullman (1983) has suggested that a decrease in vulnerability is security. Arnold Wolfers (1952) argues that “Security´ is generally a normative term. It is applied by nations “in order to be either expedient – a rational means towards an accepted end – or moral, the best or least evil course of action”. In the same way that people are different in sensing and identifying danger and threats, Wolfers argues that different nations also have different expectation of security. Not only is there a difference between forbearance of threats, but different nations also face different levels of threat because of their unique geographical, economic, ecological, and political environment. Barry Buzan (2000) views the study of security as more than a study of threats but also a study of which threats that can be tolerated and which requires immediate action. He sees the concept of security as not either power or peace, but something in between. At the International level, various States and Regional Organizations view Security differently. The United States is focusing on “renewing American leadership so that (it) can move effectively advance (its) interests” under the International System. America is trying to achieve this by integrating all the elements of its power and means of defense, diplomacy, and development to meet its objectives, including safety, welfare, values, and a righteous international order. China thinks that “International Security should be mutual while not one-sided, multilateral while not unilateral and comparative while not absolute ... Security should be based on mutual trust. A country’s role should be evaluated objectively and one country should not seek confrontation with another country through exaggerating its threats”. Russia’s aim is to protect the national interest of its people, society and nation in broad security terms. It seeks to form a multipolar world “on the basis of multilateral management of international economic, political, science and technological, environmental and informative integration”. The European Union has formed a broad security agenda and multilateral approach with the tri faceted objectives: To tackle threats; To extend the zone of security around Europe; To strengthen the international order. Brazil, Argentina, Chile and some other countries in South America are treating strategic stability as its core concept of security. Australian security concept is to safeguard the homeland, maintain regional and international stability, ensure international economy and trade developments and to spread human right and democracy. Australian security strategy is mainly built on its alliances with United States and Japan. Looking at the Africa’s security agenda, it is basically to promote and maintain international peace, security and prosperity by having closer cooperation and partnership between the United Nations, other international organizations and the African Union. 2. CONVENTIONAL/TRADITIONAL SECURITY The paradigm of the conventional security is based on realist construct of security in which the referent object of security is the State. The prevalence of this ideology reached its peak during the cold War. For almost half a century, major world power entrusted the security of their nation to a balance of power among States. In this sense, international stability relied on the premise that if State Security is maintained, and then the security of citizens will necessarily follow. Traditional security relied on the anarchistic balance of power, a military build-up between the United States and the Soviet Union (the two super powers) and on the absolute sovereignty of the nation State. States were considered as rational entities, natural interests and policy driven by the desire for absolute power. Security was purely seen as protection from outside invasion; executed during proxy conflicts using technical and military capabilities. Conventional/traditional security is in a sense similar to the developed concept of National Security which is traceable to the peace of Westphalia wherein the concept of a Sovereign State was established. It was Thomas Hobbes in his 1651 work “Leviathan” who stated that citizens yield to a powerful sovereign who in turn promises an end to civil and religious war, and to bring forth a lasting peace, and give him the right to conduct policy, including wage war or negotiate for peace for the good of the “commonwealth”, i.e. a mandate for national security. The Clausewitzian view of diplomacy and war being the instruments of furthering national cause, added to the view of national security being sought by nations by exercising self-interest at all times. This view came to be known as “classical realism” in international relation. In traditional sense, Harold Lasswell (1950) defines it as “freedom from foreign dictation”. Professor Charles Maier (1990) defines it through the lens of national power: “National Security...... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and well being.” The United States Armed Forces defines national security (of the United States) in the following manner: A collective term, encompassing both national defense, and foreign relations of the United States. Specifically, the condition provided by: a) A military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations; b) A favorable foreign relation position; or c) A defense posture capable of successfully resisting hostile or destructive action from within or without, overt or covert. In a sense, conventional security is seen as military security or the capability of a nation to defend itself, and/or deter military aggression. Alternatively, it means the use of force or cohesion to establish nation’s policy choices. Traditional or conventional security can be better censored using four navigating tools of Referent, Scope, Actor(s) and Means. REFERENT: Traditional security policies are designed to promote demands ascribed to the State. Other interests are subordinated to those of the State. Conventional Security arrangement is meant to protect a State’s boundaries, people, institutions and values. It is “State – Centered”. SCOPE: It seeks to defend States from external aggression. Walter Lippmann explains that State Security is about a State’s ability to deter or defeat an attack. It makes use of deterrence strategies to maintain the integrity of the State and protect the territory from external threats. ACTOR(S): The sovereign State is the sole actor, to ensure its own survival. Decision making power is centralized in the government, and the execution of strategies rarely involves the public. Conventional Security assumes that a sovereign State is operating in an anarchical international environment, in which there is no world governing body to enforce international rules of conduct. MEANS: Conventional Security relies upon building up national power and military defense. The common forms it takes are armament races, alliances, strategic boundaries etc. 3. HUMAN/NON-CONVENTIONAL/ALTERNATIVE SECURITY This is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the State. Human security holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability. As cold war tensions receded, it became clear that the security of citizen was threatened by hardships arising from internal State activities as well as external aggressors. Civil Wars were increasingly common and compounded existing poverty, disease, hunger, violence and human right abuses. Traditional security policies had effectively masked these underlying basic human needs in the face of State Security. Through neglect of its constituents, nation States had failed in their primary objectives. The fact that the conventional view of Security is grossly inadequate is made visible in the many hydra-headed security challenges we are facing now which are really defying the conventional approach’s solutions. Human/alternative security derives from the traditional concept of security from military threat to the safety of people and communities. It is an extension of mere existence (survival) to well-being and dignity of human beings. It varies from “a narrow term of prevention of violence to a broad comprehensive view that proposes development, human rights and traditional security together”. Human/alternative Security offers a critique of and advocates an alternative to the traditional State-based conception of security. Essentially, it argues that the proper referent for security is the individual and that State practices should reflect this rather than primarily focusing on securing borders through unilateral military action. The argument of human/alternative security approach is that the traditional conception of security is no longer relevant or effective in the highly interconnected and interdependent modern world in which global threats such as poverty, environmental degradation, and terrorism supersede the traditional security threat of interstate wars. Human/alternative security concept can equally be censored using the four elements employed on analyzing traditional/conventional security. The elements are Referent, Scope, Actor(s), and Means: REFERENT: Human security is people-centered. It focuses on protecting individuals. The important dimensions are to entail the well-being of individuals and respond to ordinary people’s needs in dealing with sources of threat. SCOPE: In addition to protecting the State from external aggression, human security would expand the scope of protection to include a broader range of threats, including environmental pollution, infectious diseases and economic deprivation. ACTOR(S): The realization of alternative security involves not only government, but a broader participation of different actors, via regional and international organizations, non-governmental organizations and local communities. MEANS: Human/alternative security not only prospects, but also empowers people and societies as a means of security. People contribute by identifying and implementing solutions to insecurity. There is an identified direct correlation between human security concept and human development. In Frances Stewart’s paper “Development and Security, he argues that security and development are deeply interconnected. – Human Security forms an important part of people’s well-being and is therefore an objective of development. An objective of development is “the enlargement of human choices”. Insecurity cuts life short and thwarts the use of human potential, thereby affecting the reaching of this object. – Lack of human security has adverse consequences on economic growth, and therefore development. Some development costs are obvious. For example, in wars, people who join the army or flee can no longer work productively. Also, destroying infrastructure reduces the productive capacity of the economy. – Imbalanced development that involves horizontal inequalities is an important source of conflict. Therefore, vicious cycle of lack of development which leads to conflict, then to lack of development, can readily emerge. Likewise, vicious cycles are possible, with high levels of human security, leading to development, which further promotes human security in return. Basically, both human security and development are people-centered. They place emphasis on the fact that people are the ultimate ends but not means. Both treat human as agents and therefore should be empowered to participate in the course. Secondly, both perspectives are multidimensional. Both address people’s dignity as well as their material and physical concerns. Lastly, both schools of thought consider poverty and inequality as the root cause of individual vulnerability. The concept of human security when compared with that of the traditional, conventional approach is more encompassing because it addresses existential realities bordering on development and human dignity. The holistic nature of human security is what majorly distinguishes it from the conventional approach. The all-encompassing nature of human security is better captured in the United Nations Development Program’s 1994 Human Development Report, where it is argued that the scope of global security should be expanded to include threats in seven areas: Economic Security: Economic security requires an assured basic income for individuals, usually from productive and remunerative work or, as a last resort, from a publicly financed safety net. In this sense, only about a quarter of the world’s people are presently economically secure. While the economic security problem may be more serious in developing countries, concern also arises in developed countries as well. Unemployment problems constitute an important factor underlying political tensions and ethnic violence. Food Security: Food security requires that all people at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. According to the United Nations, the overall availability of food is not a problem, rather the problem often is the poor distribution of food and a lack of purchasing power. In the past, food security problems have been dealt with at both national and global levels. However, their impacts are limited. According to UN, the key is to tackle the problems relating to access to assets, work and assured income (related to economic security). Health Security: Health Security aims to guarantee a minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles. In developing countries, the major causes of death traditionally were infectious and parasitic diseases, whereas in industrialized countries, the major killers were diseases of the circulatory system. Today, lifestyle-related chronic diseases are leading killers worldwide, with 80 per cent of deaths from chronic diseases occurring in low-and middle-income countries. According to the United Nations, in both developing and industrial countries, threats to health security are usually greater for poor people in rural areas, particularly children. This is due to malnutrition and insufficient access to health services, clean water and other basic necessities. Environmental Security: Environmental security aims to protect people from the short-and long term ravages of nature, man-made threats in nature, and deterioration of the natural environment. In developing countries, lack of access to clean water resources is one of the greatest environmental threats. In industrial countries, one of the major threats is air pollution. Global warming, caused by the emission of greenhouse gases, is another environment security issue. Personal Security: Personal security aims to protect people from physical violence, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals and sub-state actors, from domestic abuse, or from predatory adults. For many people, the greatest source of anxiety is crime, particularly violent crime. Community Security: Community security aims to protect people from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic violence. Traditional communities, particularly minority ethnic groups are often threatened. About half of the world’s states have experienced some inter-ethnic strife. The United Nations declared 1993 the Year of Indigenous People to highlight the continuing vulnerability of the 300 million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a widening spiral of violence. Political Security: Political security is concerned with whether people live in a society that honors their basic human rights. According to a survey conducted by Amnesty International, political repression, systematic torture, ill treatment or disappearance was still practiced in 110 countries. Human rights violations are most frequent during periods of political unrest. Along with repressing individuals and groups, governments may try to exercise control over ideas and information. Since then, human security has been receiving more attention from the key global development institutions, such as the World Bank. Tadjbakhsh, among others, traces the evolution of human security in international organizations, concluding that the concept has been manipulated and transformed considerably since 1994 to fit organizational interests. The 1994 UNDP Human Development Report (HDR) further proposes that increasing human security should entail: Investing in human development, not in arms; Engaging policy makers to address the emerging peace dividend; Giving the United Nations a clear mandate to promote and sustain development; Enlarging the concept of development cooperation so that it include all flows, not just aid; Agreeing that 20% national budget and 20% foreign aid be used for human development; and Establishing an economic security council. The report further elaborates on seven components to human security: Components of human security as per HDR 1994 report Type of Security Definition Threats Economic Security An assured basic income Poverty, unemployment, indebtedness, lack of income Food Security Physical and economic Hunger, famines and the lack access to basic food of physical and economic access to basic food Health Security Protection from diseases and Inadequate health care, new unhealthy lifestyles and recurrent diseases including epidemics and pandemics, poor nutrition and unsafe environment, unsafe lifestyles Environmental Healthy physical environment Environmental degradation, Security natural disasters, pollution and resource depletion Personal Security Security from physical From the state (torture), other violence states (war), groups of people (ethnic tension), individuals or gangs (crime), industrial, workplace or traffic accidents Community Safe membership in a group From the group (oppressive Security practices), between groups (ethnic violence), from dominant groups (e.g. indigenous people vulnerability), Type of Security Definition Threats Political Security Living in a society that honors Political or state repression, basic human rights including torture, disappearance, human rights violations, detention and imprisonment. SECURITY, AN INTRINSIC ASPECT OF DEVELOPMENT To equate development only with economic growth is a very inadequate characterization. For example, average per capita income does not really capture real income distribution of a state neither does it define many important aspects of human well being like health, education or security. There are insecurity related with well-being of a people e.g. possibility of economic vicissitudes, health crises, injury or death as a result of criminal or political violence continuous political unrest may lead to breakup of communities and families, forced immigration and the need to re-establish lives in alien environments, or even a suspended existence in refuge camps. Such condition can have negative impacts on people’s lives and consequently, negatively affect achievement of development. The security of human well being is therefore an important indicator of true development. The Nigerian state is plague with many security problems because the policy making are not seeing the intrinsic connection of security and development. Where the all inclusive, holistic development agenda is not truly and effectively pursued, insecurity can never be adequately dealt with. FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES THAT MAKE CONVENTIONAL SECURITY OBSOLETE IN AFRICA, PARTICULARLY NIGERIA COLONIAL LEGACY: The colonial masters of African State are responsible for the many security problems we are gripping with. The colonial Lords founded only pseudo-States in Africa, and these States were stable only as long as colonial powers controlled them. The political elites left behind by the colonial rulers are selfishly fighting among themselves for control of tax revenue and proceed from sale of nature resource reserve and other privileges associated with access to power in these pseudo-states. This endemic political instability of African States is intended by her colonial Lord to facilitate their continual imperialist control of the African resource. Instability will deprive Africa from holistically development, lack of development will sustain the insecurity and eventually, perpetually the resources from Africa can continually be exploited by the West to service her own economic agenda and growth. The problem of slavery was also so extensive that it touched virtually every part of sub-Saharan African. The slave trade brought about enormous social, political and demographic instability to Africa. According to one expert, the population of sub-Saharan Africa in 1850 would have been double what it was in 1700. The population of sub-Saharan Africa in 1850 was roughly 50million. If there had not been the slave trade, it is estimated that this population would have been 100million. The bulk of the strong, working class that would have spear headed African development were taken to Europe to help develop Europe, a situation that has greatly reduced the pace of development in Africa, and a concomitant factor of insecurity in Africa. INTRA-STATE CONFLICTS: African State as they stand today were not created by African but by European Imperial powers at the Berlin Conference and African did not gain control of the foreign created states until recently, in the 1960s. Consequently, there is weak allegiance by citizens to these States. This is a major reason why African States during the past 50 years have been centers of many conflicts, particularly, civil wars, inter-tribal wars, violent communal conflicts and pogroms, wars of secession and even attempts at genocide. Africa, not surprisingly, is host to the largest number of refuges and internally displaced persons in the world. INEQUALITY: The recognized inequalities within a nation and between nations lead to poverty and generally poorer living conditions. For example, economic growth is necessary for development, but not all growth benefits the poor and socially excluded. A socially equal system should achieve fairness in wealth distribution and opportunity among everyone and provide efficient social services such as health, education and infrastructures. Where this is lacking, security can never be guaranteed. At the national level using Nigeria as an example, the wealth distribution is terribly lopsided. Less than 5% of the entire population is controlling more than 80% of the resource. There are also huge numbers of the populace who are politically marginalized. In a setting like this there will surely be unrest and internal conflicts that conventional security arrangement can never contain. The current debate on the removal of oil subsidy which will eventually increase common man hardship will surely worsen the current bad security situation. How will the largest oil producing state of the region not able to refine oil for domestic market and exportation but rather export crude oil and import refined oil? This is an arrangement to enrich the few “cabal” and the remove of the subsidy is a way of further milking the dying oppressed populace to enrich the bloatedly rich few. Such inequality only promotes passionate rebellion that military and police can not contain. The problem of N18, 000.00 minimum wage is a true indices of evaluation wealth distribution in Nigeria. A nation that can not afford N18,000.00 Minimum wage is able to pay a single politician who is not really adding any “serious value” to the national well being, a huge jumbo salary of more than 400 million. Where is the ethical and economical justification for the disparity? How can security be guaranteed in such an arrangement? The 419s, Boko Haram, Niger Delta insurgents, kidnappers are all product of inequalities in the system and conventional security approach can not tackle such issues. SUBMISSIONS FOR ACTIONS Looking at the strategic comparison between the existing security arrangement and the non-traditional, alternative option, and given the logical, inherent problems and inadequacies of the conventional approach, one can clearly see the strategic importance of the fundamentality of the alternative security option. Putting the established comparison within African context and particularly the Nigeria scenarios, the hydra headed security problems we are currently experiencing is a scientific proof of the failure of the conventional approach of gun and military/police cohesion. The security problem of Nigeria is firstly due to underdevelopment perpetuated by the colonial Lords and continued by the neo-colonialist,capitalist,political elites who are bent on continuing the agenda of the colonial masters. There is no doubt that there is a direct relationship between development and security. The principal submission through the investigation of this work is that: - Human security forms an important part of people’s well being and is therefore An objective of development - That lack of human security has adverse consequences on economic growth and Poverty and thereby on development; and - That the lack of development, or imbalanced development that involves sharp horizontal inequalities, is an important cause of conflict. - Inclusive, holistic development must be encouraged to ensure security instead of military (force) solution we are currently banking on - Insecurity will adversely affect elements of development - Development will positively affect security. 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